Oil & Gas Process Technology
Condensate Fractionation Unit (CFU) is the front-end unit operations in a refinery to process the incoming natural gas condensates feed (C5+) into a range of petroleum products. Condensates are separated into several fractions according to boiling point ranges. The typical petroleum products include LPG, naphtha and kerosene.
White Spirit Production
CDPS offers complete turn-key plant for white spirit production from kerosene.
Used Oil / Lube Oil Refining
Petroleum products loose objective performance characteristics due to contaminations and degradation of constituent molecules. Reclaimation aims at processing these oils to eliminate contaminations and degraded constituents to restore the oil characteristics to intended application or some other application. Oil reclaimation is an environmental friendly activity as it avoids disposal of contaiminated oils to environment and leads to conservation of petroleum resources.
OIL RECLAIMATION PROCESSES
Reclaimation processes are broadly classified in two groups :
1. RECYCLING PROCESSES
When objective is only to remove physical contaminants like water, dust and dirt, metal particles etc. The process may also involve recovery of volatile contaminants or upgrading of products.
2. RE-REFINING PROCESSES
In re-refining processes degraded constituents are also present (about 5%) in feed stock in addition to physical contaminants. Re-refining products may often be required to be refractionated into different viscosity range base oil fractions.
Pyrolysis Oil Fractionation
By using a pyrolysis based thermal distillation system and thermally decomposing 1 ton of waste tires it is possible to adjust the processing parameters so that you can produce more oil and less residual char. Our current activities have plants in operation that consistently produce approximately 450 litres of pyrolysis oil, 150 kg of steel wire and 340 kg of carbon black from every metric tonne (non-condensable gases used for process heat). The gases produced using pyrolysis are processed through a commercial grade condenser to recover a high grade pyrolysis oil. The recovered oil has specific gravity of approximately about 0.90 to 0.98 and a sulphur content of less than 1.5%. The pyrolysis oil is then further fractionated and filtered prior to sale and use as a #2 diesel heating oil. It is a type of Light Fuel Oil or commonly named LFO. Unfiltered oil has residual carbon in the oil smaller than 10 micron however on a standalone basis it is highly suitable for package burner systems which typically will have 0.3 mm or 300 micron nozzle diameter which prevents any residual carbon formations on the nozzles.
The calorific value of the tire oil is 43.8 MJ or 10,500 kcal per kg which is similar to that of diesel and gasoline. Another end product related to the scrap tire pyrolysis is the carbon char. After separation from the steel wire, the solid residual from the pyrolysis process is the carbon char usually in a mixed form of agglomerations and powder. The high grade carbon char residual has a fixed carbon content of not less than 85% with an ash content ranging from 7% to 14%. By using our unique and commercially proven process we upgrade this carbon rich char into carbon black. From multiple laboratory analysis with major carbon black producers we reduce the ash content consistently below 10% and sulphur below 1% while also removing other metals such as magnesium, copper, iron and zinc.
The calorific value of the tire derived carbon char is 26 MJ or 6,200 kcal per kg which makes it an excellent clean burning solid fuel as a coal replacement. A simple briquette system is all that is required to make it suitable for combustion boilers and standard carbon burners can combust it on a standalone basis, however it should be noted that far more value is derived when it is upgraded into our green carbon product that has a net CO2e saving of approximately 10 to 1.
The steel wire recovered from the process is briquetted and sold into the scrap steel market for recycling. A continuous tire pyrolysis plant usually requires approximately 50 litres of diesel fuel or 2,100 MJ of heat to process and convert every metric tonne of scrap tires into oil, carbon and steel. Batch plants on the other hand use twice as much fuel as continuous system configurations. The heat from the end products will generate 16,800 MJ from the combust of the fuel oil and another 7,000 MJ from combustion of the carbon for a total thermal heat content of 23,800 MJ. There is therefore a minimum of 11 times gain in heat by recovering the heat energy from waste tires which makes the process a highly viable option for regaining substantial value from scrap and waste tires
Transformer Oil Reclamation
Hydrogenation in combination with vacuum drying and filtration is the most complete and advanced process technology for recycling of waste transformer oils. In the Hydrogenation process, hydrogen gas reacts with sulfur, nitrogen, chlorine and other unsaturated compounds present in waste transformer oil, producing a water-white, stable product with low sulfur concentration and superior insulating properties. CDPS understands how to preserve the desirable inherent characteristics of naphthenic oils during hydrogenation processing and target only the undesirable compounds in the spent oil.
In a typical TEG package, water saturated gas enters near the bottom of the Contactor Tower and flows upwards through the internal trays/packing (1). Lean Glycol enters the Contactor Tower near the top and cascades down through the Contactor internals (9), making contact with the up-fl owing gas stream. The countercurrent flow path of the Glycol and the high contact surface area enhances water absorption into the Glycol from the gas stream.
Dehydrated gas flows out of the top of the Contactor, while the Rich Glycol flows out of the bottom of the Contactor and to the Glycol Regeneration Package.
The TEG Regeneration process typically involves passing the Rich Glycol through the still column to gain some heat (2) before entering the Flash Drum (3).
The Glycol is then passed through Particle Filters to remove particulates and Activated Carbon Filters to remove any dissolved hydrocarbon and/or chemical compounds (4). The Rich Glycol is heated in a cross exchanger to preheat the feed (5) to the Still Column where the Glycol present in the water vapour leaving the Reboiler is recovered (6).
Depending on the application, it may be necessary to increase the Lean Glycol concentration by using stripping gas (7), or running the Reboiler/Still Column under a slight vacuum. Lean TEG (typically >99wt%) is then cooled and pumped back to the top of the Contactor Tower (8) to repeat the process.